Even to a person who is far from astronomy, it will be useful to know what are the main objects of selenography. This knowledge will be useful at least in order to entertain its guests on a moonlit night, if the company gathered in the country. And for the benefit of expanding their own horizons and say nothing!
So, first of all, you need to purchase a tool if it is not yet available. The best choice in terms of price / quality ratio is Celestron SkyMaster 15 × 70 binoculars, which cost about 3,000 rubles. It is perfect for observing near-space objects as well as for terrestrial purposes. An alternative may be a more versatile Navigator 20. You should also get a tripod, otherwise hand trembling will interfere with and spoil the image quality.
When is it better to watch the moon? On this account, astronomy lovers have different opinions. Some people think that it is necessary to start studying it closer to the full moon, others recommend it with a new moon, but at any phase you can find interesting details on the satellite. It is also important to remember that the closer the moon is to the zenith, the thinner the layer of air, which means that the distortions in the observations will be minimal. You can calculate the best visibility hours for a particular locality using the planetarium program.
Starting observations, it would be nice to have a moon map or an atlas and a flashlight with a red light filter. This will greatly facilitate the search for the desired objects.
Waxing Crescent. In this phase, it has the appearance of a thin, gradually growing sickle. If you look along the terminator - the line separating the light and dark sides of the satellite, you can see the eastern part of the Sea of Crises, which has a flat bottom. In the southern part of the terminator, two large craters, Wendelin and Petavius, are clearly visible. On the server - a pair of impact craters Atlas and Hercules. When the moon reaches the first quarter, the Sea of Clarity with contrasting colors of lava will emerge from the shadows. Here sometimes appears the so-called mascon - the gravitational anomaly. In a day, the Sea of Cold with a series of craters will appear before the gaze of the observer, the largest of which is Anaxagoras.
First quarter. From the east, the Sea of Rains floats up, surrounded by a mountain range, among which are independent mountain ranges - the Carpathians, Apennines, the Alps and the Caucasus. In the same sea is the remarkable Rainbow Bay. To the left of the center of the lunar disk are craters that are perfectly recognizable by amateur astronomers - Ptolemy, Alfons and Arzhel. They also contain satellite (internal) craters. To the right of them is the 140-kilometer crater of Al-Battani. Shortly before the full moon on the south side of the Sea of Rains, the crater Copernicus appears with its extensive system of rays. In the north, the eye of the observer will rejoice at another famous and beautiful formation - the crater Plato. It looks like a vast dark spot on a light background. No wonder Jan Haveli called him "Big Black Lake".
Full moon. Usually, during the period of this phase, it is customary to consider “seas” and mountains. Ocean Storms is almost completely visible - the largest lunar sea filled with solid basaltic lava. It is adjacent to many bays and small seas with islands. Here we see the dark Sea of Clouds with the crater Pitat, and in the northern part - the long and narrow Sea of Cold. In the center of the lunar disk is an object whose name speaks for itself - Central Bay. Even an inexperienced observer will immediately notice a notch with the surrounding “grandiose” rays, which stretch for 1500 km in length. This is a shock crater Quiet. Not far from it we see a small, but noticeable bright point - the crater Aristarkh. Between the Ocean of Storms and the Sea of Islands is another "radiant" crater - Kepler.
Old Moon In the last quarter, no amateur astronomer will see any "new" objects of the lunar landscape for themselves. For him, everything is already familiar from the previous phases. In addition, this period is not favorable for observations, since the moon rises above the horizon is not high. But you can still admire the craters of Grimaldi, Burgi, Shikkard.
Through binoculars it is interesting to consider not only the details of the lunar surface, but also the so-called short-term phenomena. These local anomalies appear in the most unexpected places of our satellite and are flashes, changes in brightness, lights, moving objects and other "UFOs". There is a large amount of data about these phenomena around the world, so you have a real chance to become one of the eyewitnesses.
Clean sky you!