Without the victories of Joan of Arc, the English kings, quite possibly, would have split France and gained possession on the continent. As a result, the history of Great Britain could have gone very differently. And in that, another version of the country had a chance to be not only not great, but even not Britain ... However, history does not know the subjunctive mood.
History also does not like repetition. It happens that in the saviors of the Fatherland she appoints not a fragile, illiterate, God-devoted girl, but a rude, devoid of all sentimentality man. Which is difficult to imagine with a spear in hand, on horseback. True, and the Fatherland he had to save another, and not the enemy troops threatened his country with danger ...
John Pierpont Morgan (1837−1913)In fact, it was difficult to imagine a gallant knight. But the captain on the deck of a pirate ship, he saw many. And while Morgan the banker had nothing to do with the cruel pirate Henry Morgan (1635–1688), who had robbed the Caribbean Sea, the comparison was, as they say, on the surface. And it was used repeatedly in Soviet times by authors of books that began with words like "All the major modern states are acquired in the most dishonest way.".
Such a book with the first phrase underlined - remember? - Ostap Bender scared the underground millionaire Koreiko. It was called "Capitalist Sharks".
The captain of the pirate ship Pairpont Morgan began to resemble in adulthood. When, as the first US banker, he ruthlessly eliminated competitors. Yes, and with colleagues also did not stand on ceremony. Famous photographer Edward J. Steichen (1879−1973) once said: “Looking into the eyes of Morgan is the same as examining the headlights of an approaching steam locomotive. And well, if at this moment you are not standing on the rails. " By the way, E. Steiken was, indeed, a great photographer. The photographic portrait of the millionaire made by him very well conveys the inexorable nature and cruel will of the hero. Even a stick on which J.P. Morgan leans, looks like a knife.
In childhood and in adolescence, the lad was not very different in his powerful physique. He was tormented by all possible diseases: dermatitis, arthritis, epilepsy ... In 1852, his parents sent his son to recover to the Azores. The tropical climate has done its job. For the year young John bloomed. Diseases did not disappear, but were driven inside, and John was able to get used to them. Throughout his subsequent life, he went to Europe for three months every year to improve his health. But the remaining nine months, J. Morgan worked like an ox.
His career as a banker went to John from his father, a financier Junius Morgan, well known in Boston. By the way, Pierpont (Pierpont is written in some books) is not the middle name, but, as is common with Americans, the mother’s surname. The names of John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Franklin Delano Roosevelt are formed according to the same pattern.
His father made sure that the heir to his business and his fortune received a thorough education. After graduating from school in America, John spent several years in Switzerland and then graduated from the University of Göttingen. So in German and in French J. Morgan spoke fluently. In Göttingen, he received a degree in art history. Art has become his everlasting love for life.
But let us return to the cruel prose of life. In the late 1850s, John Morgan began his career as a financier. The financier of that time was as little like the sleek modern magnates, like, say, the cruel Henry Morgan like the imposing captain of a modern multi-deck cruise ship.
It was a time when money, while remaining a symbol of royal grandeur and royal power, acquired a new profession. Financial flows have become blood in the body of an emerging industrial society. Accordingly, in the economic (and not only) life of the developed countries, the owners and sellers of this blood — financiers — began to emerge in the first roles.
A major shift has also begun in the public mind. Previously, the banker seemed to be a sort of Gobsek, sitting on countless treasures and making a profit by the most dishonest fraud - giving money at interest. At the time of Morgan, the financier already introduced himself as an admiral, sending his ships into battle. A brave and far-sighted commander, although a little bit a pirate.
And yet the book “Capitalist Sharks” was right! The actions of J. Morgan financier in no case could not be called moral. To begin at least with the fact that his first successful operation was the resale of weapons during the American Civil War (1861-1865). Northerners lent already written off rifles at such a price that the net profit was 25%! But in the pirate business, the main thing is not so much deftly to seize the loot, as not to be hanged on the yard. John's cover in government circles was good. When the Congressional Commission investigated the case, Morgan was not brought to justice.
In his activities, J. Morgan has often clashed with the state, but he constantly left the water thanks to all the same patronage in the highest echelons of power. On speculation in gold during the same Civil War, Morgan earned 132 thousand dollars in net profit. And, it seems, the wrath of his father was the greatest punishment for him. An old-fashioned person who considered the income received on the crisis of the monetary system of his native state to be immoral.
Most of his wealth, more than 80 million dollars, J. Pierpont Morgan was in the business of a completely pirated - unfriendly takeovers. That is, it was a robbery, but entered into a legitimate framework. Morgan simply bought shares of the "favorite" company. Like Morgan, of course, that brought the maximum profit. He invested his money in railways, steel mills, in the emerging electrical industry and telephony ...
Six giants of modern American industry were created thanks to the money of J. Morgan. And not least because of its toughness and cruelty in business.