For several centuries, selection work has been carried out with them, thanks to which varieties have been bred with simple and double flowers of various shapes and colors. Today in culture there are more than 1000 varieties of violets. Senpolium is classified according to plant size, flower type, type and color of the leaf blade. But this is a separate topic in which I will not go deep.
Conditions of detention. Saintpaulias are light-loving plants, but direct sunlight is destructive for them. Leaves and flowers suffer from sunburn. They easily grow on the north window and even just under fluorescent lamps in every corner of the room. Plants should be placed freely so that they are well lit and do not touch the leaves. Place the lamp at a height of about 30 cm from the shelf with plants. Duration of artificial lighting - 14 hours a day. The main thing that in this place was not drafts and clusters of tobacco smoke!
Saintpaulias can be kept on the southern windows, but on the condition that from February to October they will be protected from the direct rays of the sun. To do this, right on the glass, they stretch tulle or gauze to a height of 20-40 cm. In the spring-summer period, similar shading is required on the east window in the morning hours, and on the west window after lunch. In the summer, taking out the saintpaulias on the balcony is not desirable.
The optimum air temperature for violets is from 20 to 24 ° C. A sharp temperature drop is harmful to plants. Critical points: from 13 ° C and below, from 29 ° C and above. During the flowering period, a moderate temperature is optimal — 21–23 ° C, without sharp fluctuations. In winter, violets are kept at a temperature of 16 to 20 ° C. If the temperature is too high and the air is dry, the buds are not laid, and the existing ones give small flowers that quickly fade.
Too warm conditions in the case of variegated varieties lead to their "gardening" and it is very difficult to return them to diversity. Therefore, they need a temperature not higher than 20 ° C. The fact is that in the heat there is an active reproduction of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which leads to an increase in nitrogen in the soil and enhanced production of chlorophyll. Then the leaves turn green and lose their variegation.
Violets are poured over with settled water at room temperature, but it is even warmer than a few degrees. This is especially important in the winter period: when watering with warm water, the roots do not overcool. Watering plants should be careful in the edge of the pot or in the pan. The main thing - that the water does not fall on the leaves and in the center of the outlet. Earthen ball should always be wet, but the water in the pan should not stagnate. Watering only after the top layer of the earth dries out, thus reducing the likelihood of root collar decay from waterlogging. It's okay if the violet is even slightly crumbling, after watering it will easily come back to normal.
Once or twice a month, violets are fed with mineral fertilizers. Flowering specimens should be fertilized with top dressings with a high content of potassium. For variegated varieties, the nitrogen content in fertilizers should be minimal. Before feeding an earthen ball should be moistened with clean water beforehand and only after 20-30 minutes should be made dressing.
Saintpaulias prefer moist air (about 50%), but it is undesirable to spray them, it is better to put them on trays with wet peat or wet pebbles. Favorable effect and placement between the pots with violets cups of water. You can hang wet towels on the central heating radiators. From time to time it is necessary to clean the leaves of violets from dust with a soft brush. Some growers wash them under the shower with warm water (after all, in nature they grow in the rain!). But put on the light only after a good drying, to avoid stains and burns.
For better flowering of violets, you should carefully remove faded flowers and brushes, yellowed or damaged leaves. It should be remembered that floral brushes are formed in the leaf axils and excessive leaf removal leads to poor flowering.
To be continued…